Articles

Nouns can have articles in front of them, either definite, or indefinite. Definite articles (e.g. der, die, das) mean the;
indefinite articles (e.g. ein, eine, ein) mean a or an.

The article matches the gender of the noun, and so it is best to learn the definite article when learning the noun so as to remember the gender.
There is a plural definite article (e.g. die), but no plural indefinite article.

Definite articles

Nominative


Masculine: der
Feminine: die
Neuter: das
Plural: die

Accusative


Masculine: den
Feminine: die
Neuter: das
Plural: die

Dative


Masculine: des
Feminine: der
Neuter: des
Plural: der

Genitive


Masculine: dem
Feminine: der
Neuter: dem
Plural: den

Definite articles refer to a specific item or items: the dog, the cat, the bird, the snakes. The definite article must agree in gender with the noun to which it belongs.

    der Hund
    die Katze
    das Vögelein
    die Schlangen

In the nominative case, the masculine definite article is der, the feminine is die and the neuter is das. The plural article is die, which looks like the feminine article. Do not confuse them, as they change depending on their grammatical case.

Indefinite articles

Nominative


Masculine: ein
Feminine: eine
Neuter: ein
Plural: --

Accusative


Masculine: einen
Feminine: eine
Neuter: ein
Plural: --

Genitive


Masculine: einem
Feminine: einer
Neuter: einem
Plural: --

Dative


Masculine: eines
Feminine: einer
Neuter: eines
Plural: --

The indefinite article refers to an indefinite or unspecified item: a dog, a cat, a bird. There is no indefinite article for plural nouns. In such cases, no article is provided, and the noun appears alone: snakes, referring to snakes in general.

    ein Hund
    eine Katze
    ein Vögelein
    Schlangen

In the nominative case, the masculine indefinite article is ein, the feminine is eine, and the neuter is ein. The masculine and neuter articles are the same in the nominative, dative and genitive, but differ in the accusative. Do not confuse them.

Possessive articles

There are plenty of possessive forms to learn - including their case endings. However, the good news is that the possessive form of ihr (her) and ihr (their) is absolutely identical. The same is true for Ihr (their [polite form]), with the only minor change that the first letter of the pronoun is always capitalized, i.e. Ihr, Ihre etc. We have higlighted these sections for you to make it easier to identify them.

mein - (my)

Nominative


Masculine: mein
Feminine: meine
Neuter: mein
Plural: meine

Accusative


Masculine: meinen
Feminine: meine
Neuter: mein
Plural: meine

Dative


Masculine: meinem
Feminine: meine
Neuter: meinem
Plural: meinen

Genitive


Masculine: meines
Feminine: meiner
Neuter: meines
Plural: meiner

dein - (your)

Nominative


Masculine: dein
Feminine: deine
Neuter: dein
Plural: deine

Accusative


Masculine: deinen
Feminine: deine
Neuter: dein
Plural: deine

Dative


Masculine: deinem
Feminine: deine
Neuter: deinem
Plural: deinen

Genitive


Masculine: deines
Feminine: deiner
Neuter: deines
Plural: deiner

sein - (his/its)

Nominative


Masculine: sein
Feminine: seine
Neuter: sein
Plural: seine

Accusative


Masculine: seinen
Feminine: seine
Neuter: sein
Plural: seine

Dative


Masculine: seinem
Feminine: seine
Neuter: seinem
Plural: seinen

Genitive


Masculine: seines
Feminine: seiner
Neuter: seines
Plural: seiner

ihr - (her)

Nominative


Masculine: ihr
Feminine: ihre
Neuter: ihr
Plural: ihre

Accusative


Masculine: ihren
Feminine: ihre
Neuter: ihr
Plural: ihre

Dative


Masculine: ihrem
Feminine: ihrer
Neuter: ihrem
Plural: ihren

Genitive


Masculine: ihres
Feminine: ihrer
Neuter: ihres
Plural: ihrer

unser - (our)

Nominative


Masculine: unser
Feminine: unsere
Neuter: unser
Plural: unsere

Accusative


Masculine: unseren
Feminine: unsere
Neuter: unser
Plural: unsere

Dative


Masculine: unserem
Feminine: unserer
Neuter: unserem
Plural: unseren

Genitive


Masculine: unseres
Feminine: unserer
Neuter: unseres
Plural: unserer

euer - (your, plural)

Nominative


Masculine: euer
Feminine: eure
Neuter: euer
Plural: eure

Accusative


Masculine: euren
Feminine: eure
Neuter: euren
Plural: eure

Dative


Masculine: eurem
Feminine: eurer
Neuter: eurem
Plural: euren

Genitive


Masculine: eures
Feminine: eurer
Neuter: eures
Plural: eurer

ihr - (their)

Nominative


Masculine: ihr
Feminine: ihre
Neuter: ihr
Plural: ihre

Accusative


Masculine: ihren
Feminine: ihre
Neuter: ihr
Plural: ihre

Dative


Masculine: ihrem
Feminine: ihrer
Neuter: ihrem
Plural: ihren

Genitive


Masculine: ihres
Feminine: ihrer
Neuter: ihres
Plural: ihrer

Ihr - (your, polite form - sg. & pl.)

Nominative


Masculine: Ihr
Feminine: Ihre
Neuter: Ihr
Plural: Ihre

Accusative


Masculine: Ihren
Feminine: Ihre
Neuter: Ihr
Plural: Ihre

Dative


Masculine: Ihrem
Feminine: Ihrer
Neuter: Ihrem
Plural: Ihren

Genitive


Masculine: Ihres
Feminine: Ihrer
Neuter: Ihres
Plural: Ihrer
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